The International Enforcement Law Reporter

The International Enforcement Law Reporter is a monthly print and online journal covering news and trends in international enforcement law.

Since September 1985, the International Enforcement Law Reporter has analyzed the premier developments in both the substantive and procedural aspects of international enforcement law. Read by practitioners, academics, and politicians, the IELR is a valuable guide to the difficult and dynamic field of international law.

Every Dog Will Have His Day: U.S. Charges Cameroonian in Romania with Online “Puppy Scam”

Friday, December 11, 2020
Author: 
Bruce Zagaris
Volume: 
36
Issue: 
12
Abstract: 

                On December 7, 2020, the United States Department of Justice unsealed in U.S. District Court in Pittsburg a criminal complaint, charging Desmond Fodje Bobga, 27, with crimes related to an alleged online “puppy scam.” Bobga is a citizen of Cameroon who is attending a university in Romania.[1]



[1]    U.S. Department of Justice, Cameroonian Operator Charged in Fraudulent Online “Puppy Scam” that Exploited the COVID-19 Pandemic, Press Rel. No. 20-1322.

 

 

Switzerland Returns 26 Stolen Etruscan Artifacts to Italy

Friday, December 11, 2020
Author: 
Miranda Bannister
Volume: 
36
Issue: 
12
Abstract: 

On October 27, 2020, the Swiss government returned to Italy 26 Etruscan artifacts that were illegally acquired by a private Swiss collector between 1965 and 1968 and stored for 15 years in the Geneva free port.[1]



[1] Franciolli, Riccardo, “Switzerland returns stolen artifacts to Italy,” Nov. 12, 2020, SWISS INFO, https://www.swissinfo.ch/eng/switzerland-returns-stolen-artefacts-to-italy/46152978.

 

Report on Wrongdoing by Australians in Afghanistan Leads to Dismissal Proceedings against Soldiers and Criminal Investigations

Friday, December 4, 2020
Author: 
Bruce Zagaris
Volume: 
36
Issue: 
12
Abstract: 

On November 19, 2020, Gen. Angus Campbell, chief of the Australian Defense Force (ADF), ”unreservedly apologized” to the Afghan people in a press conference regarding the release of a 531-report[1] on alleged war crimes, crimes against humanity, and other wrongdoing committed by Australian special forces during the Afghan war.



[1]    Inspector-General of the Australian Defense Force, Afghanistan Inquiry Report (Nov. 19, 2020) https://afghanistaninquiry.defence.gov.au/sites/default/files/2020-11/IGADF-Afghanistan-Inquiry-Public-Release-Version.pdf.

 

 

U.S. and EU Take Annual Initiatives against Money Mules

Friday, December 4, 2020
Author: 
Bruce Zagaris
Volume: 
36
Issue: 
12
Abstract: 

On December 2, 2020, the United States[1] and European Union law enforcement agencies acted to crack down against money mules. Money mules are individuals who help fraudsters by receiving money from victims of fraud and forwarding it to the fraud organizers, many of whom are located abroad. 



[1]    U.S. Department of Justice, U.S. Law Enforcement Takes Action Against Approximately 2,300 Money Mules in Global Crackdown on Money Laundering, Press Rel.20-1301, Dec. 2, 2020.

 

 

Italy Extradites Sinaloa Cartel Trafficker and Former Mexican Police Officer to the U.S.

Friday, December 4, 2020
Author: 
Bruce Zagaris
Volume: 
36
Issue: 
12
Abstract: 

On November 18, 2020, Italy extradited to the United States Ramon Santoyo-Cristobal, aka Dr. Wagner, a former officer of the Mexican Federal Police and alleged Sinaloa Cartel drug trafficker.[1]



[1]    U.S. Attorney S.D. California, Sinaloa Cartel Drug Trafficker Extradited from Italy, Press Rel. CAS20-1110, Nov. 19, 2020.

 

 

U.S. Dismisses Charges against Mexican General and Return Him to Mexico

Thursday, November 26, 2020
Author: 
Bruce Zagaris
Volume: 
36
Issue: 
12
Abstract: 

On November 17, 2020, the Attorney General of the United States William P. Barr and Fiscalía General of Mexico Alejandro Gertz Manero issued a joint statement[1] announcing that the U.S. government has decided to seek dismissal of the U.S. criminal charges against former Mexican Secretary of National Defense General Salvador Cienfuegos Zepeda. Within one day, the charges were dismissed and Cienfuegos was returned to Mexico.



[1]    U.S. Department of Justice, Joint Statement by Attorney General of the United States William P. Barr and Fiscalía General of Mexico Alejandro Gertz Manero,  Press Rel. No. 20-1,249, Nov. 17, 2020.

 

 

U.S. and Brazil Sign Anti-Corruption Provisions in Trade Facilitation Protocol

Thursday, November 26, 2020
Author: 
Bruce Zagaris and Carlos Ayres*
Volume: 
36
Issue: 
12
Abstract: 

On October 19, 2020, after seven months of negotiations,[1] officials from the United States and Brazil announced the conclusion of a protocol on a limited trade deal that will facilitate commerce between the countries, strengthen regulatory practices, and strengthen anti- corruption measures. The new Protocol concerns Trade Rules and Transparency. The Protocol updates the 2011 Agreement on Trade and Economic Cooperation (ATEC) with three new annexes consisting of state-of-the-art provisions on Customs Administration and Trade Facilitation, Good Regulatory Practices, and Anticorruption.[2]  This article discusses Annex III on anti-corruption and some of its implications in the U.S. and Brazil.



*Mr. Ayres is a founding partner of the law firm Maeda, Ayres & Sarubbi in São Paulo, Brazil. He focuses on anti-corruption, government enforcement and compliance issues, with a particular emphasis on Brazil and other regions of Latin America. Mr. Ayres is a Professor at the Post-Graduate Program of FGVLaw, School of Law, in São Paulo.

 

[1]    Ana Swanson, U.S. to Sign Limited Trade Deal With Brazil, N.Y. Times, Oct. 19, 2020.

 

[2]    Office of the U.S> Trade Representative, United States and Brazil Update Agreement on Trade and Economic Cooperation with New Protocol on Trade Rules and Transparency, Oct. 19, 2020  https://ustr.gov/about-us/policy-offices/press-office/press-releases/2020/october/united-states-and-brazil-update-agreement-trade-and-economic-cooperation-new-protocol-trade-rules.

 

 

Australia Three Persons in Foreign Bribery Investigation on Iraq Oil Projects

Thursday, November 26, 2020
Author: 
Bruce Zagaris
Volume: 
36
Issue: 
12
Abstract: 

On November 18, 2020, the Australian Federal Police (AFP) charged three persons in a bribery investigation involving oil projects in Iraq.[1] The AFP arrested Russel John Waugh, 54, at his house in Brisbane.[2]



[1]    Australian Federal Police, Brisbane man arrested, two international warrants issued in foreign bribery investigation, Nov. 18, 2020 https://www.afp.gov.au/news-media/media-releases/brisbane-man-arrested-two-international-warrants-issued-foreign-bribery.

 

[2]    Blake Antrobus, Revealed: scope of allegations against former director’s ‘conspiracy’ over Iraqi oil bribes, news.com.au , Nov. 18, 2020.

 

 

EU’s Reaction to Recent Terrorist Attacks: Strengthening Police Partnership and Law Enforcement Cooperation

Saturday, November 21, 2020
Author: 
Michael Plachta
Volume: 
36
Issue: 
11
Abstract: 

On November 13, 2020, the European Union released a “Joint Statement by the EU Home Affairs Ministers on the recent terrorist attacks in Europe” and “Draft Council Conclusions on Internal Security and European Police Partnership” in the wake of recent terrorist attacks in Paris, Dresden, Conflans-Saint-Honorine, Nice, and Vienna.

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